Scientific school of the academician M. V. Zubets in the development of scientific bases of domestic animal husbandry
The article highlights the main directions of the scientific activity of the scientific school, founded on the basis of IABG by academician M. V. Zubets, namely the substantiation of theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the selection process in dairy and beef cattle breeding; implementation of programs for the breeding of specialized breeds of dairy and beef production livestock; organization of complex of researches on problems of genetics and biotechnology in animal husbandry; development of a modern methodology for assessing the genotype and forecasting the productivity of farm animals; the introduction of effective methods and forms of preservation of the gene pool of farm animals, etc.
It has proved that the scientific school has made the greatest contribution in solution of the problems of the development of the specialized beef cattle industry in Ukraine. The analysis of creative searches of the representatives of the scientific school on creation of Ukrainian, Volyn, Polissya, Southern and Simmental beef breeds, their further breeding improvement on basis of intra-breeding breeding methods and the use of genetic potential of improvement breeds of foreign breeding was carried out. It has found out that the scientific school studied the peculiarities of the formation of meat productivity of various breeds on basis of generalization of the laws of ontogenesis of animals in the process of their growth and development, depending on the influence of environmental factors and natural and climatic conditions. The effective technologies of production of high quality beef for various regions of Ukraine have offered. The preconditions for the transition to organic beef production, which based on the use of domestic beef breeds, as well as new technological methods of pasture keeping of cattle, which reduce the effect of technological and climatic stress factors, were determined.
The most promising scientific developments of the scientific school in the direction of genetic improvement of dairy breeds of cattle have generalized. As the biggest gain the author viewed determination of ontogenetic, population genetics and breeding patterns of economically useful traits of dairy cattle, their forecasting capabilities to enhance the genetic potential of animal productivity, profitability, industry, creating high-performance herds and the development of new competitive breeds and breeding intrabreed units.
The article substantiates the priority and perspective of creative searches of the representatives of the scientific school on the development of a methodology for the conservation of biodiversity of genetic resources of livestock in Ukraine. For the first time requirements to ensure the conservation of alive populations of limited number have formulated, selective and genetic monitoring and the formation of a national system for the diversity of agricultural animals have done. The maximum range of diversity of genetic resources of domestic animals of Ukraine has discovered and their classification according to domestic and international systems has carried out.
The author found that the scientific school has given a significant attention to the development of genetic foundations of livestock breeding. The methodology for determining the polymorphism of DNA in terms of quantitative traits for genetic evaluation of cattle breeds and application of obtained molecular genetic information in breeding work has substantiated. The possibilities of application of molecular genetic markers in the system of conservation of biodiversity of farm animals were determined. New methodical approaches to theoretical analysis and scientific understanding of genetic-population processes in livestock breeding at inbreeding, reproductive cross-breeding, consolidation of heredity of domestic animals, determination of the structure of the gene pool of the breed by the additive genetic productivity potential were developed.
The article proves that the scientific school has developed biotechnological methods for the rational use of bull-enhancers, the model of optimal introduction of bull sperm into the state of artificial carbon dioxide gipobiosis. A method for a comprehensive assessment of the reproductive capacity of bovine sperm in an in vitro environment for experiments on the production of bovine embryos outside the body, which can use in the selection of sires for artificial insemination, was proposed.
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