FEATURES OF THE EXTERIOR TYPE OF UKRAINIAN BLACK-AND-WHITE DAIRY BREED OF THE CHERKASSY REGION, ESTIMATED BY THE LINEAR CLASSIFICATION METHOD
The estimation of the first-born cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed by the exterior type in the leading breeding herds of Cherkassy region by the method of linear classification (n = 566) has been carried out. The results of the evaluated animals by the 100-score system indicate that within the group of traits, the average level of assessment is "good with the plus". The animals have been differed by the good development of group features characterizing the dairy type (82.4 score), body condition (83.5 score), limbs (82.8 score), udder (82.7 score) and overall score (82.8 score).
The degree of development 18 descriptive traits of the exterior of cows, has been predicted by the method of linear classification, indicates their significant intraherd variability. Animals have the moderate height, deep body and angularity. The rump angle, the angle of hock joint and the teats length, according to the variability of scores in the range of 17.8–22.4%, have an average optimal development. The level of scores for the rear width (5.9 score), attachment of the fore (6.3 score) and the rear parts (6.0 score) of the udder testifies to their good development. The body structure of the cows-firstborn has a sufficient description of the type traits that determine their milk yield.
At the present stage of selection and breeding work due to the use of bull-sires different origins and breeding value on the local population livestock with significant genotype diversity, the degree of influence each of the hereditary factors in the overall variability of linear features has a scientific and practical significance.
In our studies, the force of influence conditional bloodiness of the Holstein mother's breed in the overall fraction of variability of linear type traits within the exterior complexes and the overall assessment takes a significant percentage - from 24.9 to 31.5 with a high degree of reliability according to Fischer's criterion. Among the descriptive traits, the proportion of influence the conditional bloodiness of mother, which is confirmed by high statistical confidence, ranges from 14.4 to 19.8%, and refers to the traits important for breeding.
The level of coefficients of influence the father's breeding value in the total phenotypic variability for some of the linear traits is high and reliable. First of all it concerns group traits of the exterior, the development of which is determined by the pedigree value of father by 37.1–41.8%, and the overall assessment of type – by 46.6%. The coefficients of influence father's breeding value in most of the descriptive traits have high reliability (P < 0,001).
The coefficients of the force of influence father, depending on the heredity of Holstein for the linear traits of almost the same level as his pedigree value. Since in this case the organized factor is purebreed Holstein and crossbreed bulls-sires of domestic selection, the positive role of Holstein heredity in improving the exterior type of cows has been traced realistically.
The necessity of linear breeding, as an effective method in the system of dairy cattle breeding, has been substantiated by reliable values of the coefficients of the force of influence of father's line on the linear traits of offspring (3.4–29.5%). Despite the significant variability of coefficients of the force of influence on the linear traits, most of them have a high level of reliability within the evaluated body parts important for selection. The effect of cows belonging to the maternal line on the development of features of the body structure is insignificant and unreliable (5.3–9.2%).
In the process of breeding aimed at improving cows of dairy herd by the exterior type, the pedigree value of parents has been assessed according to the method of linear classification of their daughters and their belonging to perspective genealogical formations.
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