COMPARING THE VALUES OF CONSOLIDATION AND DISCRETION BY SELECTIVE OBSERVATIONS AND THEIR COMPLEXES IN RIGIONAL FAMILIES OF VOLINIAN BEEF
Factory families today have not lost their influence on the formation of the desired genotype of offspring with high performance. This is contributed to the forgotten but active biological role of the maternal effect. The reduced attention in the breeding process with the work of factory families is reduced to two factors, namely the reduction of the length of productive use of cows and a small number of offspring. But in scientific publications, especially in dairy cattle breeding, there are constantly reported on the number, characteristics of breeding grounds or the evaluation of plant families in mathematical models based on population genetic parameters. In meat cattle, the importance of families has not become widespread, although the duration of productive use of cows of meat production has advantages over diary.
The aim of the research was to evaluate the factory families of Volinian meat breed for using different coefficients of consolidation of the main breeding grounds.
Materials and methods of research. The research was carried out in the conditions of the breeding farm of LLC "Zorya" of Kovel district of Volyn region. The object of research was the cows of the Volinian meat breed. According to the breeding records, 18 regional families were formed, which belong to six lines with a total population of 160 heads.
In order to assess the stability (restriction of phenotypic variability) of plant families in practical selection, we have tested the methods of determining the degree of consolidation by certain characteristics of Yu. P. Polupan and the degree of discreteness of families V. V. Seromolot, S. I. Svyatchenko. The average level of consolidation by Yu. P. Polupan was calculated from the mean-square values. The methodical suitability of these methods was evaluated in two (dairy animals after the first calving and live weight in 210 days) and four (live weight at the age of 210 days, 12, 15 months and breast milk) by the studied characteristics.
In the long-term selection process in families, the process of consolidation with a constant level of quantitative attributes, which are consistently inherited in generations while simultaneously narrowing genotype and phenotypic variability, is achieved. The mentioned process in the studied factory families has a significant variability according to the selection criteria.
In studying the consolidation of live weight in different age periods, there are variables in ten families. The families of Akula 102, Arpha 599 and Wisla 1016 for live weight were unconsolidated at all ages, and their average rate was -0.148. Among the five, the consolidated families have an average value of 210 days, 0.244, in the 12 and 15 months, respectively, 0.375 and 0.268.
The greatest value are the families of Verbi 1536, Galky 37 and Veselky 444 and Bistroi 1124, whose consolidation coefficient ranges from 0.260 to 0.430. These families, in our opinion, should be considered valuable, since, in addition to the reduced group volatility, they have high actual mean values for live weight, and therefore extensions of these families should have an advantage over the selection of repair young animals. The lowest level of consolidation is with the families of Arpha 599, Bulana 943 and Wisla 1016. Selection work with them should be aimed at selecting the breeding stock of prey bulls of high tribal value. The significant difference (1,136) between the threshold levels of the coefficient of family consolidation for the milk yield of cows after the first calving indicates a high variability. The average of nine consolidated families is 0.175, which is only 0.088 above the average for the general group. The highest coefficient values were obtained in the families of Garna 536, Galka 421 and Rosetka 1313.
With a decrease in the number of economic indicators considered useful in both methods, there is a decrease in unconsolidated families to six. The average values in discrete families are 0.336, consolidated at 0.178. The most consolidated were the families of Galka 421, Rosetka 1313 and Garna 536, and the discrete families of Galka 421, Corona 2382 and Rosetka 1313, the average value of which is respectively 0.630 and 0.367.
The use of the coefficients of phenotypic consolidation and discreteness in the complex of breeding grounds in the factory families showed the advantage of consolidation by the leveling of the results obtained and the lower the dependence on the number of accounted signs. The index of discreteness for an increase of two to four characteristics taken into account on a modulus increases on average by 1.54 times.
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