COMPUTER MODEL OF OPTIMIZATION OF FEEDING RATIONS FOR LACTATING COWS AS ONE OF THE EFFECTIVE FACTORS FOR THE REALIZATION OF THEIR SELECTION AND GENETIC POTENTIAL
Introduction. With the development of computer technology, the ability to design and optimize rations with the use of special programs, which reduce the time spent on their conducting a dozen times
The majority of currently known methods of development of rations for farm animals with the usage of computer technology and software, which are published in the literature or are posted on the Internet, do not present accessible, concrete, clear and reliable data regarding their practical use and, as a rule, have significant realization costs.
The goal of this work is to develop computer model of the optimization of composition, nutritional value and cost of feeding rations for lactating cows with detailed standards, as well as predicted profitability of milk production on the basis of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, which will be simple and accessible for wide use in the production conditions.
Materials and methods of research. The computer model of optimization of the composition, nutritional value and cost of feeding rations for lactating cows, as well as the expected profitability of milk production is developed based on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets under production conditions of the research farms of the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS, SE RF “Nyva” (Hrystynivka village, Hrystynivskiy area, Cherkaskiy region) and SE RF “Hrystynivske” (Hrystynivka town of Cherkaskiy region).
Results of the research. The developed computer model of optimization of feeding rations for lactating cows is the computer matrix of the optimized ration that includes the database of detailed rates of cows feeding, main types of feeds and their nutritional value, prime cost of the farm-produced feeds and cost of the purchased feeds. At the first stage of ration optimization, the selection of the daily quantity of feeds to the ration is realized in the following sequence:
- to balance with dry matter - bulky farm-produced feeds (hay, silage, haylage, straw);
- to balance with metabolic energy – stock feed of corn, barley, non-food wheat;
- to balance with protein – peas, press cake, grist, brewers grain;
- balancing with macro-, microelements and vitamins – mineral and vitamin products.
At the final stage, based on the database entered to the computer, the programmed automated calculation of nutritional value, cost of the ration and predicted profitability of milk production is realized.
The proposed computer model envisages the inclusion of feeds of own production from the energy-protein units, which are most yielding on harvest, and the fodder crops, which are cheapest on the prime cost, with minimal use of purchased high-protein supplements and other fodder and mineral supplements to rations.
Advantages of the proposed computer model of ration development for lactation cows:
- availability of the method;
- the method does not require the usage of traditional expensive programs, which are complicated in application;
- simplicity of computer software in the development of rations;
- the availability of operative measures in order to make the necessary changes for the correction of rations in the process of their development;
- the labor costs for the development of rations, the calculation of their cost and the expected profitability of milk production decrease by 5–7 times;
- the introduction of a computer model of calculation of composition of feed rations into the production according to detailed rules makes it possible to maximize the genetically predetermined productive potential of animals and the production of high quality and competitive livestock products.
- A simple computer model of optimization of the composition, nutritional value and cost of feeding rations for lactating cows, which can be used in the production conditions, according to detailed norms and predicted profitability of milk production is developed.
- The organization of optimized full feeding of lactation cows using computer technology according to detailed norms and the purposeful management of the selection and genetic process ensured the average annual milk yield from the cow in 2016 at research farms of Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS of SE RF “Nyva” and SE RF “Hrystynivske” at the level of 6514 and 6511 kg, respectively.
2. Dubrovin, A. V., B. V. Luk'yanov, and P. B. Luk'yanov. 2015. Ustroystvo sostavleniya po razlichnym kriteriyam optimizatsii ekonomicheski nailuchshego kormovogo ratsiona i prigotovleniya ekonomicheski nailuchshey kormovoy smesi pri programmiruemom roste zhivotnykh i ptitsy i pri nalichii informatsii o potreblenii imi kormosmesi i ob ikh zhivoy masse – The device for compiling according to various criteria the optimization of the economically best feed ration and the preparation of the economically best fodder mixture with a programmable growth of animals and poultry and in the presence of information on their consumption of feed mix and their live weight. Patent UA, no. 2554149:20 (in Russian).
3. Luk'yanov, B. V, and P. B. Luk'yanov. 2015. «Korall» – kompleksnaya optimizatsiya i analiz ratsionov, kombikormov, premiksov: rukovodstvo pol'zovatelya – «Corall» – complex optimization and analysis of rations, mixed fodders, premixes: user's guidelines. Moscow, 207 (in Russian).
4. Panin, I. G., V. V. Grechishnikov, N. P. Buryakov, M. A. Buryakova, and A. S. Zaikina. 2015. Instruktsiya k programmnomu kompleksu «Korm Optima Ekspert»: uchebnoe posobie – Instruction for the program complex «Corm Optimum Expert»: training manual. Moscow, 164 (in Russian).
5. Instruktsiya po rabote s programmoy «Hybrimin Futter» – Instructions for using the program «Hybrimin Futter» [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: http://polfamix.ucoz.ua/HYBRIMIN/Fut2003.pdf (in Russian).
6. Programma «Win Pas». Balansirovanie i optimizatsiya kormovykh retseptov – The program «Win Pas». Balancing and optimizing feed recipes [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: http://polfamix.ucoz.ua/load/24-1-0-17 (in Russian).
7. Tsvihun, A. T., M. H. Povoznikov, S. M. Blyusyuk, and O. L. Bilozers'kyy. 2009. Komp"yuterne zabezpechennya orhanizatsiyi povnotsinnoyi kormovoyi bazy ta hodivli m"yasnoyi khudoby – Computer software for organizing a complete feed base and feeding beef cattle. Orhanizatsiya normovanoyi hodivli khudoby u m"yasnomu skotarstvi: praktychnyy posibnyk – Organization of normalized feeding of cattle in beef cattle raising: a practical guide. Kam"yanets'-Podil's'kyy, PP Zvoleyko D. H., 139–142 (in Ukrainian).
8. Harmash, E. 2008. Komp'yuternaya optimizatsiya ratsionov – Computer optimization of rations. Tvarynnytstvo Ukrayiny – Livestock of Ukraine. 8:2–4 (in Ukrainian).
9. Kharvey, G. 2002. Excel 2000 dlya Windows – Excel 2000 for Windows. Moskva, Vil'yams, 384 (in Russian).
10. Trebovaniya k premiksam – Requirements for premixes [Elektronnyy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupa: http://kremix.com.ua/ua/catalog/premiksy (in Russian).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.