FORMING OF ECONOMIC-AND-USEFUL TRAITS OF COWS IN DEPEND OF ORIGIN BY FATHER
The increase in the productivity of dairy cows significantly depends on the qualitative selection, evaluation and intensive use of procreator bulls with breeding value both for milk production and exteriors. The proper selection of bull for reproduction the herd is an important and responsible measure as the heredity of the procreators in the genetic improvement of breeds is extremely high, especially at the present stage of breeding.
The aim of the research was to determine the level of influence of father's origin on dairy productivity, exterior and reproductive capacity of Ukrainian Red dairy cows in the conditions of the Central region.
Materials and methods. The research was carried out on the basis of zootechnical records in a herd breeding plant for the breeding of the Ukrainian Red dairy breeds of cattle of the State Enterprise of Experimental Household «Elitne» of the Kirovograd SAES NAAS. The analysis involves the materials of the formed electronic database on indicators of milk productivity, reproductive capacity and structure of the body of cows for the year 2015.
Estimation of the exterior type of cows was conducted using the linear classification method at the age of 2–4 months after calving in two systems - 9-ball, with a linear description of 18 articles of the exterior and 100-point classification system, taking into account four sets of breeding grounds, which characterize: the severity of the dairy type, the development of the body, the state of the limbs and the morphological qualities of the udder. In the exterior, the half-sisters groups of 6 bulls with a population of 28 to 118 cows were compared.
The force of origin's influence on the father was calculated by one-factor dispersion analysis. The calculations were carried out using the methods of mathematical statistics using the software package "STATISTICA-6.1".
Results of the research. By comparison of group average, a significant level of differentiation of the bulls in the herd of the breeder is determined by the characteristics of their daughters. By the age of the first calving, the difference between the best and worst half-sistesr groups reached 283 ± 148,9 days or 36,5 %, with a reproduction rate of 0,181 ± 0,180 or 21,0%, for the livelihood of 305 days of first lactation – 2890 ± 959 kg оr 78,3% (P < 0,01), the second one was 2112 ± 926 kg or 40,9% (P < 0,05), the third group was 113 ± 521 kg or 18,4% (P < 0,05). In terms of the content of fat in milk, the intergroup difference was 0,38 ± 0,294% (td = 1,29) for the first, 0.64 ± 0,155% (td = 1,62) for the second and 0,44 ± 0,311% (td = 2,03) – for the third lactation, for protein content – the difference was insignificant.
Among the daughters of the studied protectors, the highest tastes for the first lactation were characterized by daughters of Tsvitka 435, Roman Reda 86883, Diplomat 401497. For the second and third Rainer 23685, Tsvitka 435, Hens Reda 398624, below all lactations of the Vendian 67955 and Cup 405. Noticed, Cvitok 435, holsteinized bull of intrarenal type of Ukrainian Red dairy breed, for the dignity of its daughters, exceeded all Holstein breeders, used in the herd.
Summarized, according to the results of the classification of the four complexes exterior signs, the assessment shows the level of expression of the exterior type and suggests that it is best at the daughters of Bensons Hens Red 398624, Jorin 114414759 and Tsvitka 435.
Reduce the gap between the actual estimate and the maximum possible, which is respectively 5,5, 5,7 and 6,2 points, possibly due to the quality control of the stock herd by the exteriors in the herds with the selection of procreator-bulls, estimated by the type of daughters.
Conclusions. The study of milk productivity and reproductive ability of cows definited the level of differentiation between the groups of half sisters by father. The difference between the groups on separate grounds is 78,3%. At the same time, cows of the Holstein and Holstinizovany In-breed Type (HRD) of Ukrainian Red dairy breeds have a marked advantage over milk yield. The worst manifestation of the features – in animals of the bulls of Angler and Rich-Milkfat In-breed Type (FRD) of Ukrainian Red dairy breeds.
Using of linear classification allowed to differentiate sufficiently the bull-producers by the exterior characteristics of the structure of the body and the mummies of their daughters. The high variability of descriptive articles indicates the need for their improvement in a part of the animals of the study population. The influence of the genetic factor of the father's origin on the variability of the considered characteristics ranged from 12 to 36%.
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