DEVELOPMENT AND FERTILITY OF HEIFERS UNDER DIFFERENT SCHEMES WATERING OF WHOLE MILK
The purpose of the research was to study the effects of feeding different amounts of whole milk and the feeding of high quality feed on the development of heifers and their reproductive capacity and productivity of cows. The research was carried out at farm property "Chayka" (branch "Lisne" and "Chemer") on heifers of the Ukrainian black-and-white milk breed and "Shupiki" and "Agrarian Investment Union" (AIU) on the heifers of the Ukrainian red-and-white milk breed. Three schemes were used for drawing whole milk to calves. In the "Lisne" pumped 260 kg of milk for 65 days; "Chemer" – 310 kg for 45 days; "Shupiki" and "AIU" – 360 kg for 90 days.
When conducting experiments, it was found that the average live weight of calves in 3 months. The age was 100,97 + 0,893 kg; in 6 months – 166.17 + 1,794 kg; in 9 months – 239.23 + 2.831 kg, in 12 months – 308,60 + 3,648 kg in 15 months – 371,50 + 5,008 kg. There was no special difference in the live weight of calves, drinking 310 and 360 kg of milk.
Average daily gain of heifers were, in the main, within 660-895 g. in 3 months. The age of somewhat higher was the live weight of calves, who drank a large amount of whole milk. Through a clinical examination of calves and weighing, it was found that, on average, up to 80 kg live weight had 5.2% calves, from 81 to 100 kg 43.5%, and more than 100 kg – 51.3%. At the age of 3 months. A greater number of calves (52.8–69.1%) had a live weight of over 100 kg, and lagged in growth from 2.4 to 9.8%. More lag (9.2%) was in the group of calves, drinking 260 kg of milk (P > 0.999).
In the experiments, the development and productivity of the daughters of the separate bulls of the Holstein breed of red-and-white suit was studied. Somewhat larger live weight had a heifer under the nickname "Lukka" at birth (39.2 kg) and within 3–15 months. Dairy productivity was higher among the daughters of the bug "Kantsler" (for 305 days of the first lactation 7438.7 kg). The duration of the service period on average was 142.7 days.
On the chickens of 2014–2015 births at the state enterprise "Chemer" (Ukrainian black-and-white milk breed) and "Shupiki" (Ukrainian red-and-white milk breed) found that puberty occurs in 24–30% calves at the age of 9–10 months. Among the 700 goals. Stewed heifers were detected 6.4% with abnormalities of genital organs.
In the study of fertilization of well-developed heifers 13–16 months. Age (459 with a live weight of 365–380 kg), it was found that the average fertility from the first insemination was 73.6%. It was better to have younger heifers (83–89%) with high live weight for fertilization. Total from 13 to 16 months. 84.3% of heifers were impregnated with age, and the rest were later.
In the experiments, the milk productivity of cows of the Ukrainian black-and-white milk breed (512 lactas) and Ukrainian red-and-white milk breeds (406 lactations) was analyzed. Indicators indicate satisfactory milk productivity of cows for the first two lactations (over 7.5 thousand kg) under different schemes for giving to calves of milk.
- Feeding calves from 260 to 360 kg of whole milk and feeding the premature feed or full-grain granules provides their normal development in 90,2–97,6% of calves with daily increments of 660–895 g. The heifers which drank 310–360 kg milk smaller increments were observed in some calves of all groups after the milking period (from three to six months).
- The average fertility index of heifers from the first insemination is 73.6%. The best results are observed in heifers 13-15 months. Age for live weight 365–380 kg.
- The conditions of growing and feeding the experimental heifers in the milk and after-milk periods provide a relatively satisfactory milk yield (on average more than 7.5 thousand kg) of cows.
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