GENEBANK ANALYSIS: SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS OF ANIMALS MITOCHONDRIAL GENOME UKRAINIAN GRAY AND UKRAINIAN WHITEHEAD CATTLE BREEDS
Examination of variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences has been pivotal in the elucidation of bovine phylogeography. Initial studies have demonstrated a deep bifurcation in bovine mtDNA phylogeny, which indicates a predomestic divergence between the two major taxa of cattle, humped zebu (Bos indicus) and humpless taurine (Bos taurus). Subsequent genetic investigations have yielded further inference regarding origins within the B. taurus lineage. B. taurus mtDNA sequences fall into one of five ancestral star-like haplotypic clusters, which are geographically distributed. Just one of these clusters, T3, predominates in Western Europe. Symmetrically, diversity within Africa is composed almost exclusively of members of a separate haplotypic cluster, T1, which is rarely detected elsewhere. The almost mutually exclusive geographic distribution of these two haplotypic clusters allows geographical exceptions to be securely identified as secondary introductions.
We investigated a comparative analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences for different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus, Bos indicus) with global genetic bank. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from bovine animals (Bos taurus) breeds Ukrainian Whitehead and Ukrainian Gray freely available on the global genetic bank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genebank/). Local alignment of sequences for mitochondrial genome of different cattle breeds was performed using the program MEGA 4.0. For the detection of nucleotide replacements used mitochondrial DNA sequence of Bos taurus Hereford breed (Anderson S. at al., 1982) as a reference (accession number V00645).
Here we report the analysis results of testing for 9 genotypes Ukrainian Gray mitochondrial DNA sequences showed that one animal (GQ129208) has haplotype Bos indicus, other belongs to haplogroup T1 with European origin mtDNA. Analysis of single nucleotide replacement in one of the hypervariable regions mtDNA (position number 16019-16339) shows, that among 10 submitted genotypes of Ukrainian Whitehead the 3 of them (FJ014303, FJ014298, FJ014294) relating to T1a mtDNA haplogroup of African origin, which characterized by replacement of T to C at position 16255. Also have been two animals (FJ014301, FJ014295) with single nucleotide replacements with relatives to Bos indicus mtDNA haplogroup.
We performed alignment with reference sequences (Bos_taurus_v00654.1) and comparative nucleotide sequences analysis of another hypervariable D-loop (position number 1-240) mtDNA with 5 Ukrainian Whitehead genotypes and 5 Ukrainian Gray genotypes represented in genetics bank. Among the Ukrainian Whitehead genotypes (FJ014298, FJ014297, FJ014296, FJ014295, FJ014294) all were polymorphic that characterizes large differentiation these animals for maternal and describe deep heterogeneous parent population of studied group. We determined one animal with genotype FJ014295 was significantly different by the number of segregation sites. The analyzed sequences (FJ014290, FJ014289, FJ014288, FJ014287, FJ014286) of 5 Ukrainian Gray genotypes showed no polymorphism in hypervariable D-loop (position number 1-240) mtDNA.
The mtDNA analysis of different species of animals allowed to distribute their mtDNA belonging to European, African and Asian haplogroups. The technique, which allows to differentiate the animals represented by their belonging to the respective haplogroups. The process that gave rise to different genotypes in one lineage is clearly of fundamental importance in understanding intraspecific mitochondrial polymorphism and evolution in mammals.
Сomprehensive study genetic material provide more opportunities to optimize costs in-situ conservation of different cattle breeds, to optimize methods and techniques which used in ex-situ conservation programmes of National gene bank of animal genetic resources.
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