THE HISTORY OF THE FORMATION OF ETHOLOGY AS SCIENCE ON BEHAVIOR OF ANIMALS
The science of behavior in the search for objective laws and attempts to develop concepts that could explain normal and abnormal behavior, has gone through several stages of development - reflex, biheviorialnyy, ethological. These steps taken oppose each other, but we believe that each of them is the basis for further development.
In Ukraine, the famous ethologist was Professor of Kharkiv University Karazin AP Krapivny. His works are devoted to interspecies relations animals and bioecological aspects zoopsychology philosophical, mathematical analysis of complex behavior of animals. Kyiv National University. Shevchenko animal behavior and regulatory mechanisms mizhtvarynnyh relations actively exploring Podobaylo AV and VA Gorobchyshyna.
The current stage is characterized not only by the lack of a unified theory in ethology, but also the availability of interdisciplinary connections, especially with comparative psychology and neurophysiology. Modern ethology phase lasts quite a long time, and it sometimes distinguish different stages. A number of famous ethologist believe that since the mid 80s of last century ethology entered a new stage of its development - the stage of the so-called "broad ethology." It is characterized, in their opinion, no discipline regarding the consolidation of a theory of private conduct and interaction based on the existence of one ethological approach. Anthropologists, although limited to the study of primates, made a significant contribution to the development of modern science of animal behavior at all.
An important contribution to science made by psychiatrists, specialists in social psychology, veterinary doctors and employees of zoos and sanctuaries.
The ultimate goal of the study of animal behavior that determines the practical role of ethology, behavior management believe (L. Baskin). Theoretical bases of behavior management: the theory of hierarchical social behavior of animals exposed mechanisms ritualization (demonstrative behavior that prevents aggression), communication systems, mechanisms for organizing your social behavior. However, the right to use the patterns found for the modernization and industrial livestock farming is not possible. We have to solve many specific issues related to specific species, his reaction to domestication (domestication of animals) and welfare. It found a significant number of rather similar problems related laws and domestication synanthropization (adaptation of organisms to exist near the person), their impact on the environment and animal behavior
The development of animal husbandry is by creating new options for interaction of organisms with new physical and biological conditions. Excluding the effect of limiting factors, one introduces animals into new ecological niches. However, we are seeing with only weak changes in norms of reaction types. In most cases we are talking about the use of the existing range of standards reactions. Changing behaviors people use natural mechanisms to ensure lability behavior: simple recombination of elements within the complex, developing new responses to stimuli. Translating animals in the new environment, every time we have to review all aspects of their integrated behavior, creating the need for adequate reaction and eliminating unsuitable to the new conditions.
In general, we can talk about a special field of research - Applied Ethology, in front of which are the following problems:
- Creation of an integrated model of behavior animals in artificial environments. Development ethological aspects neoevolyutsiyi (domestication and synanthropization).
- Delimitation variability coherent behavior and its elements in species important to the economy and development of methods of purposeful formation behavior.
- Study and use patterns of behavior in vitro livestock facilities, livestock grazing and intensive industrial economy.
The evolution of ideas about the "mind" of animals and establishment of basic concepts of thinking (mental activity) animals and its effect was found in various areas of behavior over time. At all stages of the development of science questions the presence of mind in animals, its degree of development and role of psychology and behavior were mixed.
The current stage of development of ethology characterized not only by the lack of a unified theory, but also the availability of connections, especially from comparative psychology and neurophysiology.
Great contribution to the major trends of experimental and comparative approaches to the study of higher mental functions such animals have researchers like Pavlov.
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