MONITORING OF THE SIMMENTAL BREED IN UKRAINE
Entry. The genesis of the Simmental breed of milk and meat direction of productivity in Ukraine lasted from imports of foreign (Swiss, Austrian) cattle and the creating of a large array of domestic breeding with a large number of genealogical groups (about 80 lines), to the conversion of the best to speeding up in the domestic Ukrainian Red-and-White Dairy breed dairy productivity.
A long process of selection (about one and a half century) has created essentially a new combined Simmental productivity. The array that was created, and that since the mid 90's of the 15 regions and under 39,2 % of the total population of all breeds were characterized by a harmonious structure of the body, strong and dense constitution by well developed muscles. The average live weight of cows of the best breeding plants was 603 kg according to level of milk production of over 5000 kg.
The goal of the research was to analyze the breeding stock for the breeding and productive qualities, which ensures systematic monitoring of status and trends of breed processes in population of Simmental breed in Ukraine.
Materials and methods of research. Investigations were carried out on breeding stock Simmental 19-herds of 12 regions of Ukraine as of 1 January 2016. For a comprehensive evaluation used data from the population, the productivity of dairy cows (305 days of the last completed lactation), exterior, reproduction, rearing, presence and condition of cows with high performance and genealogical structure.
The results of the research. The driving factor of progress of region breeds is the number of breeding animals in the active population. According to the State registry of subjects of breeding business in animal husbandry the share of Simmental breed in Ukraine on January 1, 2016 the number is 3.1 %, including cows 3.43 percent. So, according to our data selection work with the Simmental breed in Ukraine is carried out in two breeding farms, and 18 breeding reproducers, and their breeding stock has 7840 goals.
The average age 4300 Simmental cows in the calving is 3,6 ± 0,30. The distribution of the calving showed a tendency, according to which there is a gradual decrease in the proportion of cows starting with the fresh cows to the fifth calving by 9% and rapid to 10 and older (19.6 %). In breeding nucleus was allocated 1,403 cows, representing 32.6% of the number of the females.
It was examined udder shape 900 fresh cows, of which 60% are similar to bath and 40% similar to a cup of milk at an average intensity of 1,90 ± 0,027 kg / min. The intensity of milk output for 45% of the fresh cows is at the level of 1.8 ... of 2.19 kg/min and 21% of fresh cows – above 2,20 kg/min. The type of body structure cows 3913 - 40% were rated "excellent" and only 1% "satisfactory" in 1059 fresh cows corresponding values are 38 and 1%.
The genealogical structure of the Simmental breed in Ukraine is represented by two breeds, actually Simmental and Holstein red . Holstein red has 8 lines, among which the most numerous are the Starbuck 352790 (423 goal.) and Chifa 1427381 (323 goal.) for pairing was involved 18 of the bulls in 11 herds with a total population of 1046 of goals, including the 406 cows.
Among the lines Simmental only 9.6% of broodstock take seven domestic breeding lines, which are concentrated mainly in the farms of Vinnytsia, Khmelnytsky and Kharkiv regions.
Conclusions. Monitoring the condition in the population Simmental in Ukraine and the development of economically useful traits of breeding stock confirmed the general trend of reducing the number. So, if in the early of the 2000s the proportion of Simmental cattle was 5.3%, whereas in 2015 it decreased by 1.8% to 3.5%. Milk yield of cows in the the average is 5373 kg, 3.86% fat content and 3.17% protein in milk by live weight of 579 kg. The average age of disposals is 3.7 cows calving. The main causes of disposal of cows is low productivity and reproductive ability accounting for 54%, the average age of 3.7 calvings. The genealogical structure is represented by lines Simmental (domestic and foreign selection) and Holstein breeds. The share of domestic Simmental breed lines in Ukraine is not more than 10 %.
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